WHAT IS METABOLIC SYNDROME?
Metabolic Syndrome is a name given for a number of risk factors, which increase the possibility of developing diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. Metabolic syndrome in Lebanon is very frequent, especially in men.
In order to be diagnosed with Metabolic Syndrome you should have at least three metabolic risk factors:
- Having an ‘apple’ shape or a large waistline, indicating abdominal obesity. If you have excess fat in your stomach area, you are at greater risk for heart disease than if you carried excess fat on other body parts, like the hips.
- If you are on medication for the treatment of high triglycerides (a type of fat located in the blood), or you have a high triglyceride level.
- If you are on medication for the treatment of low HDL cholesterol, or you have a low HDL cholesterol level. Sometimes HDL is called the ‘good’ cholesterol because it assists in removing cholesterol from your arteries. On the other hand, a low HDL cholesterol level increases your risk of heart disease.
- If you are on medication for the treatment of high blood pressure, or you have high blood pressure. The force of blood pushing against your artery walls as your heart is pumping blood is known as your blood pressure. If your blood pressure rises and stays at a high level, your heart can be damaged and it can lead to the build-up of plaque.
- If you are on medication for the treatment of high blood sugar, or you have high fasting blood sugar. An early sign of diabetes is mildly high blood sugar level.
THE HISTORY OF METABOLIC SURGERY
In the last half of the 20th century, experiments were conducted to see if diseases such as cholesterol and high lipids were treatable with surgical procedures like intestinal bypass.Dr. Walter Pories and his team published an article in 1995 titled ‘Who would have thought it? An operation proves to be the most effective therapy for adult-onset diabetes mellitus’.
After that landmark paper, there has been an accumulation of evidence showing that surgery can improve or even cure many metabolic diseases, in particular adult onset of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
The ASBS (American Society for Bariatric Surgery) changed its name in 2009 to the ASMBS (American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery): this was done to promote the beneficial effects of weight loss surgeries for the treatment of metabolic diseases, in particular Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.
The term ‘Metabolic Surgery’ is used today to describe surgical procedures for the treatment of metabolic diseases, in particular Type 2 Diabetes.
The most popular metabolic surgery is the Gastric Bypass, with this procedure being performed for more than twenty years. Other procedures are the gastric sleeve, the gastric band, the gastric plication, and the Biliopancreatic Diversion with or without Duodenal Switch.
Experimental procedures are currently under study, and these include the Ilial Interposition and the Duodenojejunal Bypass. Minimally invasive devices like the Intraluminal Duodenal Sleeve are also under study.