Introduction: Rapid increase in the rate of obesity related morbidities has resulted in the evolution of many surgical techniques for reducing obesity which are resorted to as the last treatment option when all other interventions like weight loss diet, heavy workouts, medicines and supplements etc. fail to yield beneficial results. Weight loss surgery, better known as Bariatric surgery, is an effective treatment modality in this regard.
Weight Loss Surgical Intervention
Bariatric surgery is recommended only for people who are morbidly obese, have a body mass index (BMI) of more than 40, are suffering from obesity related health disorders like high cholesterol levels and hypertension etc. and those in whom all other treatments have failed to reduce weight and fully understand the risks associated with surgery. Given below are various types of weight loss surgical techniques that can help you lose all the extra weight that you have put on.
The basic technique of restrictive surgical methods is to reduce the stomach size thereby slowing down the rate of digestion of food. Reduced size of stomach means that it can’t hold more food than the available capacity so lower the amount of food that stomach can hold, the less you eat and thus lose weight. Gastric banding is a type of restrictive surgery. In this method, the stomach is divided by means of a band into a smaller upper and larger lower part which delays the emptying of food and thus slows down digestion. Sleeve gastrectomy is another restrictive procedure in which about 75% of the portion of the stomach is removed. The sleeve gastrectomy is, however, irreversible and cannot be undone.
In this type, in addition to shrinking the stomach size, a part of alimentary tract is bypassed which reduces the amount of food that is digested. Gastric Bypass Surgery (Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass) is the most commonly employed technique. In this method, the surgeon sections the stomach into two and links the upper part with the intestine, bypassing the lower part. This method causes rapid weight loss but carries the risk of nutrient deficiencies. Biliopancreatic Diversion is a modification of the gastric bypass. In this, lesser part of the stomach is sectioned and lesser portion of intestine is bypassed. This method reduces the risk of malnutrition and ulcers associated with gastric bypass method.
The type of surgery that suits a patient is determined on the basis of his previous history of Bariatric surgery and the degree of obesity. Consultation with a physician helps make the best decision for weight loss purpose.